November 5, 2010
  Governance Information Bulletin #18 Subscribe | Unsubscribe

Governance, Development Strategies, and Aid Assistance

Robert Wade
In 'After the Crisis', Robert Wade of the London School of Economics discusses the strategic goals of state industrial policy in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. He argues that the current crisis has invited skepticism on political economy strategies promoted by the World Bank and the IMF over the past 30 years. In addition, recent developments have shown that liberal markets, FDI, and good governance may not be necessary for economic growth. Instead, previously discredited forms of economic policy that defined the developmental state - such as import replacement and the promotion of some domestic sectors - may be of use to low-income countries. Finally, Wade identifies the organizational characteristics of successful developmental states and ends by describing small signs of new flexibility in World Bank and IMF thinking.>>>

Cedric de Coning, Andreas Øien Stensland, Thierry Tardy (eds.)
This edited volume consists of presentations made at the UN Futures Peacekeeping Challenges Seminar in Geneva, 23-24 June 2010. These presentations covered a wide-range of topics involving UN peacekeeping, including organizational challenges, managing host nation consent, and promoting accountability and credibility. In addition, participants discussed the appropriateness of a 'robust peacekeeping' capability, relationships between the UN and African states regarding peacekeeping, and the influence of China on future UN peacekeeping. >>>

Ben Leo
In 'Leveraging World Bank Resources for the Poorest', Ben Leo of the Center for Global Development proposes a new framework for increasing aid financing to developing countries. Rather than rely on a centralized financing model based around the International Development Association (IDA), Leo suggests that IDA funding be used to subsidize International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loans to qualifying countries, such as India or Vietnam. Such an approach would simultaneously make more IDA funding available while maintaining the same level of IBRD assistance. Finally, Leo shows how such a scheme has already been used successfully by the Inter-American Development Bank for its middle- and low-income aid recipients.
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Dee Jupp and Sobel Ibn Ali, with Carlos Barahona
This SIDA study offers a new interview methodology to examine clients' perception about empowerment in relation to aid delivery. As a social process and an outcome of participation, the authors provide clear guidelines on how to monitor and measure empowerment from multiple analytic perspectives that recognize its inherently subjective nature. Their evaluation tool allows project researchers to convert qualitative data to a quantitative database for statistical analysis about empowerment at the group and programme levels and to inform performance management. Finally, the authors provide lessons learned for development implementation and suggestions for how to apply the evaluation methodology.
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Matthew Andrews, Jesse McConnell, and Alison Wescott
In 'Development as Leadership-led Change', Matthew Andrews, Jesse McConnell, and Alison Wescott of the Harvard Kennedy School present findings of a study commissioned by the Global Leadership Initiative and the World Bank that investigates the role of leadership in the development of governance capacity. Using evidence gathered from 140 interviews, the authors propose that leadership creates 'change space' for increased capacity that creates acceptance for change, grants authority for change, and creates opportunities necessary to realize organizational change. Once such a 'space' is created, capacity improvements can be contextualized to respond to changing events and new leadership opportunities for new governance initiatives.
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Parliaments and Parliamentary Strengthening

United Nations Development Programme
This UNDP report explores how new information communication technologies (ICT) capabilities empower parliaments with more information for better decision-making. Its analytic framework illustrates how parliamentary functions of oversight, accountability, and representation can be improved through ICTs that link parliamentarians around the world. These institutional capabilities are described as 'e-Parliament' and provides concrete examples of how information technology capabilities can be linked to regular parliamentary business practices. The study concludes by discussing how parliaments in the developed world use ICT, and notes that these parliaments lag in their representative function because of unidirectional communication flows.  >>>

Alan Hudson and Claire Wren
In this report, Alan Hudson and Claire Wren provide to DFID a description of how parliamentary strengthening is conducted in developing countries. After discussing the goals of good governance programs, the authors review the functions of parliament and how high institutional performance promotes political stability. They also contextualize parliamentary performance in developing countries and explore the implications for parliamentary strengthening. Lastly, the authors review the multiple British and non-British organizations who manage parliamentary strengthening programs as well as the different approaches they take towards the provision of technical assistance.>>>

USAID

This USAID report examines how parliamentary immunity is conferred upon legislators is different countries. It compares how Armenia, Ukraine, and Guatemala define the scope of parliamentary immunity, the political and institutional context in which such legal protections are made, and the process by which immunity is stripped from members accused of illegal practices. In addition, the report discusses how immunity can be abused by parliamentarians and offers lessons learned for those who are writing and designing parliamentary immunity laws. It concludes by making recommendations for balancing the need for immunity with the requirements of transparency and curbing corruption.>>>

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
This International IDEA handbook provides an in-depth look at different electoral systems across the world to better aid designers setting up governance institutions. After describing the importance of electoral system design, the handbook discusses criteria upon which designers should make judgments about appropriate electoral and institutional structures. It also discusses the various types of electoral systems and the differences between parliamentary or presidential systems and first-past-the-post or proportional representation. Lastly, the handbook discusses the costs and administrative implications for choices about system design and offers advice to electoral system designers.. >>>

Africa

Nureldin Satti, John Prendergast and Laura Jones
This article presents two perspectives on the ongoing South Sudan independence election crisis. John Prendergast and Laura Jones argue that the United States must do more to strengthen the peace agreement brokered in 2005. They suggest that American policy should aim to develop leverage with Khartoum and Juba to convince both sides to agree to a lasting settlement and peaceful resolution of the crisis. Nuredin Satti offers a less activist perspective, and argues that the United States has lost moral authority to influence the Sudan crisis because of its inconsistent commitment to peace and its promotion of South Sudanese independence at the expense of Sudanese unity and a truly democratic South Sudanese government. He concludes with a plea for the United States to negotiate with Sudan on a respectful basis that dispels the mutual distrust that has plagued US-Sudan bilateral relations.. >>>

Louise Anten

In this Clingendael research paper, Louise Anten discusses governance and conflict resolution in the Congolese district of Ituri. After being drawn into Congo's civil war in 1996, Ituri has undergone a reconstruction and reconciliation process since 2003 led by MONUSCO. However, Anten argues that a strategy of 'limited containment' is proving unsuccessful because major political issues that fuel the conflict remain unresolved because of no institutional support from a central government. Armed militias and local elites still maintain a degree of influence in Ituri because conflict resolution has to be implemented. Anten concludes by suggesting how the current situation could be changed by improved coordination between donors and governmental actors. >>>

Anna Persson, Bo Rothstein and Jan Teorell
In 'The Failure of Anti-Corruption Policies', this working paper from the Quality of Government Institute of the University of Gothenberg explains why international aid programs that are intended to curb corruption have not enjoyed much success. The authors argue the development community has misunderstood the problem of corruption by viewing it as a principal-agent problem rather than a collective action problem. These contrasting perspectives are illustrated using case studies of Kenya and Uganda, where multiple international anti-corruption programs have been implemented yet have failed to reduce the short-term costs of fighting corruption. Absent such incentives, any moral or socially developed anti-corruption norms fostered by development programs tend to fail. >>>

Afghanistan

Tazreena Sajjad
In 'Peace at all Costs', Tazreena Sajjad of the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit discusses the paradoxes of reconciliation, reintegration, and justice in Afghanistan. Through interviews of Afghan and international actors involved in the process of reconciliation and integration, she highlights potential problems that impede successful resolution of the conflict. In particular, they argue that reintegration and reconciliation are based on flawed assumptions regarding the responses of insurgents to incentives for peace and their ability to trust and negotiate in good faith with the government of Afghanistan. In addition, both incentives and opportunities for political dialogue remain insufficient to address the broad and complex range of factors driving the insurgency. Until Afghanistan's reconciliation and reintegration program addresses these factors, it is likely to remain unsuccessful. >>>

The Balkans

Janusz Bugajski

In this yearly edited volume, Janusz Bugajski of and others discuss new political developments in the Balkans. They pay attention to several important trends, including the changing relationships between Balkan states undergoing reform and international organizations and sovereign states promoting peace and stability. These include NATO, the EU, and the United States. In addition, the authors explore the impact of the global financial crisis on Balkan states and discuss their means of coping with it. The authors also discuss developments in specific countries, such as Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosova, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. >>>

Haiti

Laurence Kirmayer
In this paper written on request from the World Health Organization, Dr. Laurence Kirmayer compiles a literature review for the World Health Organization regarding the relationship between local culture and mental health in Haiti. Using key books, literature, and databases such as Google Scholar, the literature review is organized into two parts. The first describes historical, economic, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Haiti relevant to understand Haitian society. The second describes mental health and mental health services, including an epidemiology of illness, common beliefs about illness, explanatory models, ways to configure mental health services, and the relationship between religion and mental health.
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Message from the Editor

Below please find the eightteenth edition of SUNY/CID’s Governance Information Bulletin [GIB]. It draws attention to materials about technical matters involved in strengthening national, regional and local political institutions, as well as to broader issues of aid strategies, democracy assistance, government and public sector performance, and to developments in countries and regions where we are working. Each entry provides a link to a larger piece of research in the title and at the end of the entry.

Many thanks for your attention. We welcome all questions, comments and suggestions at gib@cid.suny.edu.  

In This Issue

After the Crisis: Industrial Policy and the Developmental State in Low-Income Countries
Beyond the 'New Horizon'
Leveraging World Bank Resources for the Poorest
Measuring Empowerment? Ask Them: Quantifying qualitative outcomes from people's own analysis
Development as Leadership-led Change
Empowering Parliament Through the Use of ICTs
Parliamentary strengthening in developing countries
Parliamentary Immunity Brief: A Summary of Case Studies
Electoral Systems Design Handbook
Two Views on the Crisis in Sudan
Strengthening Governance in a Post-Conflict District of the Democratic Republic of Congo
The Failure of Anti-Corruption Policies: A Theoretical Mischaracterization of the Problem
Peace at all Costs? Reconciliation and Reintegration in Afghanistan
Western Balkans Policy Review 2010
Culture and Mental Health in Haiti: A Literature Review

Development and Governance Blogs

End Poverty in South Asia is a World Bank blog that discusses anti-poverty programs in South Asian states. Its writers are development professionals with vast experience in South Asia.

Dennis Whittle, founder of the GlobalGiving, writes Pulling for the Underdog. Whittle discusses aid strategies and reforms of official development agencies such as USAID.

Global Health Policy is written by experts from the Center for Global Development, and covers HIV/AIDS, pharmaceutical research and development, and broader issues with health service provisions in the developing world.

The Center for International Private Enterprise blog explores the relationship between economic liberty and democracy, and focuses on corporate governance, anti-corruption, and relationships between business sectors and government.

Tim Hartford writes as The Undercover Economist about the economic consequences of ordinary human behavior and economic development

The India Development Blog by researchers at the Institute for Financial Management and Research writes about socioeconomic development, service delivery, and climate change in India.
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