January 1, 2017
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Fragile States

Thomas Carothers (Brookings 2016)

The range of causal factors contributing to fragility is wide. Yet as international attention to fragility has increased in recent years, it has converged around at least one central common feature of fragile contexts – systemic exclusion – and one common prescription – encouraging inclusive governance. Understanding fragility through the lens of exclusion and inclusion highlights the important connection between fragility and the growing global trend of closing space for civil society. During the past 10 years, a startlingly large number of governments in developing and post-communist countries – by some measures more than 70 governments – have taken steps to curtail, sometimes drastically, independent civil society within their countries. They have done so through legal and regulatory measures restricting the ability of civic groups to organize and operate, extralegal harassment and intimidation, and political messaging that calls into question the legitimacy and authenticity of such organizations. A common element of governments’ efforts to close space for civil society is measures restricting foreign support for civil society and denunciations of such foreign support as subversive activity.

(Mercy Corp. 2016)

For far too long, evidence on “what works” has evaded practitioners working on violence reduction, particularly Countering Violent Extremism (CVE). While a vast literature exists on the drivers to violence and violent extremism, few rigorous evaluations have been done to figure out what works to prevent or reduce individuals from engaging in violence. Many existing strategies and programs are based on conventional wisdom or anecdotal information on what are perceived to be the drivers of violence. Among these, lack of equitable, quality education and political marginalization are often cited as drivers for youth joining violent groups. However to be able to effectively address the growing threat of political violence and violent extremism in fragile and conflict affected contexts, empirical research testing the impact of programs meant to reduce violence is needed. To respond to this evidence gap, Mercy Corps carried out a rigorous mixed-methods impact evaluation of a youth focused stability program in Somaliland, funded by USAID, known as the Somali Youth Leaders Initiative (SYLI). The research tested the impact of increasing access to formal education and civic engagement opportunities on youth participation in and support for political violence. Education, in particular, and engagement with civil society are prominent priorities in the Somali National Strategy and Action Plan on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism.


Jack Onyisi Abebe (SSRN 2016)

As actors engage in supporting the Agenda 2030, it is important that they borrow from lessons from the efforts on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which included among others, the need to promote broad-based ownership of the agenda; the need to ensure coordination across development policies and strategies, and coherence and capacities to deliver on this agenda within government. Additionally, effective resource mobilization has been highlighted as critical. Gender and development is important because it focuses on connections between gender and development initiatives and feminists’ perspectives, and deals with issues such as health and education, decision making and leadership, peace building, violence against women and economic empowerment. Development cannot be realized without the very significant component of gender. Countries the world over have proved that exclusion of women in development has rendered their development efforts futile.

(USAID, 2016)

Any country that fails to engage half its population meaningfully in political life can not be considered fully democratic. Ensuring women and men, and those who are third gender or gender non conforming, have equal opportuni¬ties to participate in the civic and political life of their countries is consistent with universal human rights, democratic principles, and USAID’s goal of fostering resilient, democratic societies. The goal of this toolkit is to provide a practical, straightforward, and user-friendly guide to DRG officers as a means to better integrate gender equality and female empowerment in project conceptualization and design. The toolkit contains key ques¬tions to guide gender analysis in program design across specific DRG sub-sectors, illustrative activities to overcome barriers to the full and equal participation of men, women, and intersex/gender non-conforming/third gender persons in democratic governance, and illustrative examples from USAID and exter¬nal programs successfully integrating gender.

Governance, Transparency and Accountability

Vanessa Williamson and Norman Eisen (Brookings 2016)

This report reviews the empirical and theoretical literature examining the international impact of open government, and offers recommendations for policymakers and an agenda for further research on the subject. In Section I, we define the scope of our analysis, explaining what we mean by the question, “does open government work?” Here, and throughout the report, we employ a broad definition of open government, focusing on three governance processes that allow the perspectives, needs, and rights of citizens—including the most marginalized—to be addressed. They are: (1) initiatives to increase transparency; (2) interventions intended to expand public engagement and participation; and (3) efforts to improve responsiveness and accountability. By whether open government “works” or is “effective,” we mean interventions that the evidence shows cause critical improvement in people’s lives (e.g. by improving health care, reducing corruption, increasing voting rates, and so on). From an analysis of hundreds of reports, articles, and peer-reviewed academic studies discussing the effectiveness of particular programs, we derive in Section II six features of open government programs that give these reforms the highest likelihood of success. These points can be expressed as a series of questions that we argue proponents of such programs should pose. 1. Have the proponents identified the specific principals (e.g. segments of the public, civil society, media, and other stakeholders) intended to benefit? 2. Is the information revealed by the initiative important to the principals? 3. Is the information accessible and publicized to the principals? 4. Can the principals respond meaningfully as individuals? 5. Are governmental agents supportive of the reform effort? 6. Can the principals coordinate to change their governmental agents’ incentives?

Human Rights/Rule of Law

Makau W. Mutua (SSRN 2016)

The rule of law is often seen as a panacea for ensuring a successful, fair and modern democracy which enables sustainable development. However, as Makau Mutua highlights, this is not the case. Using the example of African states, he describes how no African country has truly thrown off the shackles of colonial rule and emerged as a truly just nation state – even though many have the rule of law at the heart of their constitutions. This, he argues, is because the Western concept of the rule of law cannot be simply transplanted to Africa. The concept must be adapted accordingly to take into account the cultural, geographic and economic peculiarities of each state. In order to achieve this, Mutua offers seven core values which the rule of law must reflect in order to achieve sustainable development across the continent.

Tim Luccaro (INPROL 2016)

Historically, the coexistence between formal law and customary justice was seen as a problem in need of a solution by practitioners, policymakers, and international donors looking to strengthen or build rule of law in developing nations. Now, customary justice is increasingly acknowledged by legal scholars as a key part of the legal landscape in many countries. Some practitioners may still try to ignore customary justice—with both its positive and its negative traits—but doing so will not make it disappear. Fortunately, legal practitioners increasingly recognize that customary law can be an important platform for broader law reform and state-building efforts. This Practitioner’s Guide—developed with legal practitioners and policymakers in mind—aims to provide those new to the concept of customary justice with a basic introduction to its foundational concepts, its commonly held benefits, and its persistent faults. The guide presents readers with the basic tools and questions necessary to begin to assess customary justice as it is commonly practiced around the world. Thus equipped, readers will be better placed to engage with communities in rule of law reform and reconstruction in a culturally sensitive and constructive manner.

Moeen H. Cheema (24 Mich. St. Int'l L. Rev. 449 (2016))

In March 2009, Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry and several other deposed judges were restored to the Supreme Court of Pakistan as a result of a populist movement for the restoration of an independent judiciary. The Supreme Court of Pakistan has since engaged in judicial activism that has resulted in a clash between the judiciary and the elected executive and has brought the distinction between the Rule of Law and the judicialization of politics into contestation. This Paper deconstructs the philosophical debates over the meaning and relevance of the Rule of Law in order to show that the claims to universal applicability, neutrality and inherent value implicit in the dominant modes of theorizing about the Rule of Law are hollow. The deeper concern animating these debates is not the desire to draw hard lines between “law” and “politics.” However, abstract Rule of Law contestations have limited value and relevance, when divorced from the political, constitutional, and sociological context. Only a sharper understanding of the nature of the special politics of law and the specific contexts (of constitutional law, state structure, social, and economic life- forms) shall enable a better understanding of the ever-increasing resonance of the Rule of Law, especially in the Global South.

Trafficking in Persons

Dan Archer, Margaret Boittin &Cecilia Hyunjung Mo (USAID 2016)

This paper presents the results of a series of randomized controlled trials in Nepal to determine the effectiveness of media campaigns designed to raise counter-trafficking in persons awareness. The researchers developed, tested, and randomly assigned campaigns, varying by format; the narratives were further varied by message type, and participants were randomly assigned to experience the campaigns in an individual or group setting. The findings show that all campaigns increased general knowledge about trafficking, ability to self-identify as victims, and ability to recognize trafficking situations that have affected family and friends. The campaigns also increased respondents’ sense of urgency about trafficking in Nepal, commitment to act to address it, and actions to prevent it. However, the campaigns did not increase respondents’ awareness of trafficking in their own communities. The research also found differences in campaign effects: narrative formats were more effective than a fact-based poster, and empowerment narratives were more effective than fear-based narratives. The research suggests a policy preference for use of radio in a country such as Nepal, where radio is cost effective.


Elizabeth Carabine, Sabrina Chesterman and Emily Wilkinson

Resilience programs often aim to provide services that help build assets and minimize the impact of shocks and stresses on people’s lives and livelihoods. But little is known about the way local risk governance systems and institutional arrangements mediate people’s access to these services and therefore lead to improved resilience. Evidence related to how ecosystem, financial and climate services can strengthen resilience at the local level is growing in the Sahel and Horn of Africa. There is less evidence regarding the importance of governance systems in mediating access to these assets. Ecosystem services are often delivered at the local level and governed by complex institutional arrangements. Actors, including governments, non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations, often overlap. In many cases, national governments deliver climate services, often bypassing local governance structures. Therefore, while access to and use and application of weather and climate information and services in Africa and elsewhere are increasing, end-users continue to face challenges in receiving and applying these services. The formal financial sector is largely absent. Financial services are more often provided informally through women's savings groups or reciprocity within social networks. Increasingly, non-governmental organizations and private sector actors are delivering financial services in places that are vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events. This report offers a conceptual framework for resilient risk governance and a way forward for researchers and practitioners to build a greater body of evidence on its role in delivering resilience outcomes.

International Foreign Aid

Jonas Gamso & Farhod Yuldashev (NewDeeply 2016)

Immigration from poor countries continues to be one of the most salient concerns among voters and politicians in the United States and the countries of Western Europe. Faced with the failure of traditional immigration policies, scholars and policymakers in these high income countries are increasingly turning towards foreign aid as a means to reducing migrant inflows. This approach reflects the conventional wisdom that individuals in the Developing World migrate to countries of the Global North in an effort to escape poverty, underdevelopment, and other problems at home. Leaders representing high income countries believe that aid can improve the well-being of would-be migrants, thereby dissuading them from uprooting their lives and migrating abroad. However, there remains little consensus as to whether foreign aid actually reduces migration, as only a few studies have tackled this subject and they have produced contradictory results. We suspect that one of the weaknesses of this literature is its tendency to treat all aid the same way. With this in mind, this paper examines the effects of different types of aid on emigration patterns. To do so, we analyze a panel of 101 low and middle income countries over a time series spanning 25 years (1985-2010). Our findings indicate that governance aid is accompanied by reductions in the emigration rates of developing countries, whereas other types of aid have no discernable relationship to emigration. These results suggest that some, but not all, types of foreign aid can act as an effective and development-friendly immigration policy.


Executive: Public Administration – Regulatory Agencies

Louise Shaxson, Ajoy Datta, Mapula Tshangela and Bongani Matomela (ODI, 2016)

Efforts to improve the use of evidence in government policy-making across the world have tended to focus on different groups and organizations. But while a good deal of work has been done to improve the supply of evidence from entities such as research centers and academia, less attention has been paid to improving demand for, and use of, evidence by government policy-makers. This working paper describes the framework used by a team of ODI researchers and officials from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs to analyze how DEA’s internal structures and processes and the external policy environment in South Africa affect how its policy-makers source and use evidence. This paper outlines, systematically, the detail of the issues important to understanding how and why a government department operates when it comes to evidence, drawing on the authors’ direct experiences of working on evidence in the UK’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and DEA.

Alf Wills, Mapula Tshangela, Louise Shaxson, Ajoy Datta and Bongani Matomela (ODI, 2016)

Approaches to evidence-informed policy-making must be flexible and pay equal attention to the quality of the processes through which evidence is sourced and used, as well as the quality of the evidence itself. However, there are often common concerns, within and across government departments – for example, using the full range of high-quality evidence that is available, using budgets efficiently, building relationships and ensuring wide participation, and anticipating future evidence needs. This report derives from work done with the South African Department of Environmental Affairs between 2014 and 2016. Informed by exisiting good practices identified in DEA, it proposes five guidelines and sets of good practice that could underpin a systematic and phased approach to improving evidence-informed policy-making within a government department.

Peter Gluckman & James Wilsdon (SSRN 2016)

Scientific advice to governments has never been in greater demand; nor has it been more contested. From climate change to cyber-security, poverty to pandemics, food technologies to fracking, the questions being asked of scientists, engineers and other experts by policymakers, the media and the wider public continue to multiply and increase in complexity. At the same time, the authority and legitimacy of experts are under increasing scrutiny. This thematic article collection (‘special issue’) brings together perspectives on the theory, practice and politics of scientific advice that build on the conclusions of the landmark conference in Auckland in August 2014, which led to the creation of the International Network for Government Science Advice (INGSA). We hope that new papers will continue to be added to this collection over the next year and beyond, making it a living, fully open access repository for new scholarship and policy thinking — and an important contribution to the emerging science and art of scientific advice.

Sierd Hadley, Tom Hart, Cathal Long, Mark Miller, Shakira Mustapha and Bryn Welham (ODI, 2016)

This series of introductory guides offers insights into key topics in public financial management (PFM). They are written specifically for capacity-constrained environments and provide an overview and discussion of the main issues related to each key topic, highlighting useful literature. Low-income and low-capability states are frequently advised by donors to attempt similar kinds of PFM reforms. Within the literature, there is plenty of guidance on ‘best practice’ for these PFM reforms setting out the expected benefits, what the ‘correct’ form should be and how reforms should ideally be delivered. However, there is relatively less information available about how frequently attempted PFM reforms tend to work in practice in low-income and low-capability states, and on the gap that often exists between ‘best practice’ and the actual reality on the ground. In addition, some of the literature on PFM reform assumes a familiarity with a number of concepts and background issues that may be lacking in certain reform environments. Each introductory guide includes practical suggestions on how capacity-constrained governments can approach reforms, together with brief outlines of other countries’ experiences of PFM reform. The introductory guides cover the areas of cash management in cash-constrained environments: public investment management, the ministry of finance 'challenge function', fiscal decentralisation and organising the strategic phase of the budget process.


Legislatures/Deliberative Bodies

(UNDP 2016)

Developments in the Arab region post-2011 demonstrate that freedoms are both integral to development and, that at the same time, their effective and constructive exercise requires legitimate frameworks and processes whereby they can be exercised. These were too often lacking in the region, and the absence of processes for mediating between different needs and expectations was a major factor in disintegration of order in several countries, with the end result that freedoms and opportunities for all were threatened. Because representative institutions existed in many countries of the region prior to political transformation, there is an opportunity to build on existing institutions within the framework of enhancing social cohesion. However, where parliaments were relatively weak vis-à-vis the executive, and government accountability was limited, it is necessary to reinforce the role of parliaments particularly in the areas of representation and accountability. This involves not only support to capacity development of both elected members and the administration, but also in many cases the establishment or the strengthening of related accountability institutions. These include bodies such as human rights commissions, the auditor general or audit court that carry out financial oversight of government, and ombudspersons and similar institutions, all of whom are accountable to parliament in most established democracies.

(IPU, 2016)

Drawing on IPU’s extensive experience, this toolkit should help parliaments evaluate how gender sensitive they are, assess their current practices and policies, identify possible areas for reform, plan for change, and establish mechanisms to monitor progress.

Jacqui Smith and Kristen Sample (GPG 2016)

In this Guide the authors consider: the importance of gender equality in parliaments; the range and effectiveness of methods used to increase women’s representation in parliament; the decisions made by individual women MPs in thinking about how to organize their parliamentary and political life and to maximize their impact as MPs and politicians; how parliaments could be reformed or reorganized to support the involvement of women; and how women parliamentarians have used cross-party collective bodies to increase their impact on promoting and monitoring legislation and raising engagement of women in parliamentary activities through civil society organizations.

Alvaro Name Correa and Huseyin Yildirim (SSRN 2016)

Why do committees exist? The extant literature emphasizes that they pool dispersed information across members. In this paper, we argue that they may also serve to discourage outside influence or capture by raising its cost. As such, committees may contain members who add no new information to the collective decision. We show that the optimal committee is larger when outsiders have higher stakes in its decision, lower quality proposals or more rivals, or when its members are more corruptible. We also show that keeping committee members anonymous and accountable for their votes can help deter capture.


Asli U. Bali and Hanna Lerner (SSRN 2016)

High stakes constitution-writing exercises have burst into the headlines in recent years from Iraq and Afghanistan to Egypt and Tunisia. In some cases, heated debates have given way to conflict and even violence as transitioning societies struggle to resolve fundamental conflicts over identity. The challenges of constitution-making are more acute in societies that are marked by deep religious divisions, as is the case in many Muslim-majority countries that are currently undergoing political transitions. In this Article, we examine a distinctive feature of the current wave of new constitutional exercises: the challenge of constitution-drafting under conditions of deep disagreement over the state’s religious or secular identity. The Article offers three major contributions. First, it provides a detailed qualitative examination and comparison of constitution-making in the seven relatively understudied cases of Egypt, Indonesia, India, Israel, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey. Second, the examination of these cases informs a critical assessment of some common assumptions in the literature that are drawn from well-studied, Western cases of constitution-drafting like those of the United States and France. The authors argue that an understanding of constitution-drafting as higher-order law-making that is designed to resolve questions of identity and entrench a foundational definition of “we the people” is inapposite at best and, at worst, may exacerbate conflict in religiously-divided countries. Thirdly, they develop a framework that expands the range of constitution-drafting tools and strategies discussed in the comparative law literature by identifying novel design features drawn from the qualitative cases and their potential merits.

(UNDP. 2016)

The United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime undertook the Global Study on Legal Aid to establish a baseline understanding of how the right to legal aid in civil, criminal and administrative cases has been defined and addressed around the world. The Global Study is the international community’s first attempt to collect data on and present a comprehensive overview of the state of legal aid globally. It provides valuable insights on a number of common priorities faced by countries for enhancing people’s access to effective legal aid services. The Global Study on Legal Aid is comprised of three publications: (i) the Global Report, which presents data, findings and recommendations on access and provision of legal aid services around the world; (ii) Case Studies (forthcoming), which provide in-depth analysis of the state of legal aid delivery in 8 countries; and (iii) Country Profiles (forthcoming), which contain information on various aspects of legal aid delivery in 49 countries. The data and findings of the Global Study are based on survey responses from UN Member States and independent national experts in 106 countries—representing more than half (53%) of the world’s countries—across all regions of the world and development contexts. The findings and recommendations from the Global Study can assist legislators, policymakers, and other national and international stakeholders working in the area of access to legal aid by identifying priorities for technical assistance and making evidence-based recommendations on how to strengthen the provision of legal aid services as a means to empower people to seek out justice and protect their rights.

Janine Ubink (SSRN 2016)

Developing countries are hard-pressed to provide affordable, good-quality dispute settlement to their populations. A case in point is Malawi, where Parliament in 2011 passed the Local Courts Act to remedy the profound lack of access to justice in the country. The proposed local courts are hybrid institutions that combine characteristics of state and customary fora. This Article analyzes the probable impact of local courts on people’s access to legal institutions and the quality of the justice they provide compared to magistrate courts and informal traditional tribunals. It furthermore discusses whether it is likely that the local courts will be abused for suppression of political opposition as happened in the traditional courts, hybrid courts that operated in Malawi from 1969 to 1994 during the regime of President-Dictator Kamuzu Banda. The traditional courts invoked custom and tradition whenever the law did not serve them. This exceptional use of chief-led courts to circumvent the regular courts and subdue dissent poses the salient question whether courts that can apply custom are more vulnerable to political abuse due to certain characteristics of customary law. This Article presents valuable lesson for other developing countries reforming their customary justice sector: while certain characteristics of customary law that are crucial to the functioning of courts that employ customary law — their unwritten, negotiable, and relational character and their flexible procedures — have a dark side in that they can facilitate abuse, the enabling and determining factor of such abuse lies in the undemocratic constellation of the country and the lack of independence of its judges.

Local Governance/Decentralization

Dinoroy M. Aritonang (SSRN 2016)

Local government has a long experience in handling deconcentration tasks and functions, especially when the Law No. 5/1974 was implemented. There are some relevant reasons why deconcentration is regarded as an important instrument in maintaining the relationship between central and local government. Deconcentration has some advantages which cannot be provided by decentralization. It can also be applied along with the decentralization in order to give balance to the extensive distribution of power to autonomous regions. Historical, political, and administrative reasons have been the main factors to consider and analyze the application of deconcentration in Indonesia.

Elections and Political Parties

Sead Alihodžić (International IDEA, 2016)

Elections are complex undertakings. Regardless of where they take place, election management bodies (EMBs) face numerous risks in organizing them. These risks are linked to the legal, operational, technical, political and security aspects of electoral processes. When risks become certainties, the consequences can be serious in both well-established and transitional democracies. This Policy Paper demonstrates the importance of institutionalizing risk management in elections. It discusses key terminological and methodological aspects of risk management in order to derive election-specific definitions, and outlines the key ingredients of risk management in elections. The paper takes stock of existing electoral risk-management practices, based on the results of a global survey of 87 countries carried out by International IDEA, and case studies provided by EMBs in Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, India, Mexico and South Africa, as well as a comparative case study of Kenya, Nepal and Nigeria.

Civil Society / Non-Governmental Organizations

Jessica Mackenzie and Caroline Cassidy (ODI, 2016)

Governments around the world are dealing with increasingly complex problems and trying to better understand ‘what works’ to deliver real change for their populations. One way of addressing this is to create a well-resourced think tank staffed by policy issue experts working closely with government. There are various ways to establish and manage think tanks, and with is conflicting advice on which models work best, it can be hard to know where to start. This working paper provides concrete guidance for those who want to operate effectively in this space. It contrasts how influential think tanks engineer their human resource systems, quality assurance mechanisms and communications and outreach to illuminate how we can best help governments get the advice they need, most effectively.


Politically Engaged Programming/Politically Adaptive Programming

USAID Learning Lab (USAID 2016)

A key principle of USAID’s Program Cycle is to “Promote Sustainability through Local Ownership.” The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe the “5Rs Framework”, a practical methodology for supporting sustainability and local ownership in projects and activities through ongoing attention to local actors and local systems. The 5Rs Framework is intended as a simple and practical tool to promote good systems practice. The 5Rs Framework highlights five key dimensions of systems: Results, Roles, Relationships, Rules and Resources. Collectively these 5Rs can serve as a lens for assessing local systems and a guide for identifying and monitoring interventions designed to strengthen them.

Greg Power (GPG 2016)

One of the thorniest problems for international assistance is getting institutional reforms that are both effective, and that ‘stick’ – especially in the political institutions shaping policy and service delivery. This paper describes Global Partners Governance’s (GPG’s) approach to institutional reform and political change. The KAPE® (knowledgeapplication-practice-effect) methodology that we adopt to get ‘sticky’ institutional and behavioural change. This paper describes, first, the central role of behaviour in getting lasting institutional change, second, how GPG uses KAPE to deliver projects, with specific reference to its work with the Parliament of Iraq and third, how KAPE provides a way of measuring change and impact that acts as an alternative (or addition) to the logframe.

Assessment Tools and Strategies

(Plan International, 2016)

Millions of girls are ‘invisible’ to governments and policy makers because vital data is not being recorded about their lives. 'Counting the Invisible' explores the current state of gender data and exposes the gaps: we don’t count how many girls leave school because of early marriage, pregnancy or violence, exactly how many give birth before they turn 15, how many hours a day they spend working, what kind of work they do and whether they get paid for it. Bringing visibility to these realities can transform girls' lives.

Margaret Levi & Barry R. Weingast (SSRN 2016)

Analytic narratives involve selecting a problem or puzzle, then building a model to explicate the logic of an explanation for the puzzle or problem, often in the context of a unique case. The method involves several steps. First, the use of narrative to elucidate the principal players, their preferences, the key decision points and possible choices, and the rules of game, all in a textured and sequenced account. Second, building a model of the sequence of interaction, including predicted outcomes. This criterion generally involves an explicit game and hence an equilibrium. Third, the evaluation of the model through comparative statics and the testable implications the model generates. The analytic narrative approach is most useful to scholars who seek to evaluate the strength of parsimonious causal mechanisms in the context of a specific and often unique case. The requirement of explicit formal theorizing (or at least theory that could be formalized) compels scholars to make causal statements and to identify a small number of variables as central to understanding the case.

Political Economy Analysis

Diana Cammack (USAID Learning Lab, 2016)

Political Economy Analysis (PEA) is a field-research methodology used to explore not simply how things happen in an aid-recipient country, but why things happen. It results in a written assessment with recommendations for a mission's County Development Cooperation Strategy (CDCS), project or activity design, or course correction during implementation. USAID's Applied PEA is a problem-focused method specially intended to be used by Mission staff to inform the design of aid interventions at any phase of the USAID program cycle and at any level of effort. This document provides an overview of the methodology.

Big Data

(UNDP, 2016)

‘A Guide to Data Innovation for Development - From idea to proof-of-concept,’ provides step-by-step guidance for development practitioners to leverage new sources of data. The Guide builds on successful case trials and provides practical guidance for jump-starting a data innovation project, from the design phase through the creation of a proof-of-concept. The guide is structured into three sections - (I) Explore the Problem & System, (II) Assemble the Team and (III) Create the Workplan. Each of the sections comprises of a series of tools for completing the steps needed to initiate and design a data innovation project, to engage the right partners and to make sure that adequate privacy and protection mechanisms are applied.

Message from the Editor

SUNY/CID welcomes new and continuing readers to its Governance Information Bulletin (GIB) which highlights recent articles of interest for development practitioners and scholars in the area of democracy and governance. Areas of attention include: (1) development and international foreign aid, including strategies of democracy and governance assistance; (2) development and political institutions including legislative development; local governance and devolution; and public sector performance improvement and (3) program design, measurement and evaluation.

In addition, all previous issues can be found at the SUNY/CID website here.

We welcome all questions, comments and suggestions at cidgib@albany.edu.

In This Issue

* Closing Space and Fragility

* Critical Choices: Assessing the Effects of Education and Civic Engagement on Somali Youths’ Propensity Towards Violence

* The Role of Gender in Enhancing the Development Agenda of Any Country

* Gender Integration in Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG) : Programming Toolkit

* The Impact of Open Government: Assessing the Evidence

* Africa and the Rule of Law

* Customary Justice: An Introduction to Basic Concepts, Strengths, and Weaknesses

* The Politics of the Rule of Law

* Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking: An Experimental Intervention Using Anti-Trafficking Campaigns to Change Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Nepal

* Resilient Risk Governance: Experience from the Sahel and Horn of Africa

* Targeted Foreign Aid and International Migration: Is Development-Promotion an Effective Immigration Policy?

* Understanding the Organizational Context for Evidence-Informed Policy-Making

* Guidelines and Good Practices for Evidence-Informed Policy-Making in a Government Department

* From Paradox to Principles: Where Next for Scientific Advice to Governments?

* Public Financial Management Introductory Guides

* Handbook on Social Cohesion and Parliaments: Building Social Cohesion through Parliamentary and Constitutional Assemblies in the Arab Region

* Evaluating The Gender Sensitivity Of Parliaments, A Self-Assessment Toolkit

* Promoting Gender Equality in Parliaments

* A Capture Theory of Committees

* Constitutional Design Without Constitutional Moments: Lessons from Religiously Divided Societies

* Global Study on Legal Aid

* Access vs. Justice: Customary Courts and Political Abuse — Lessons from Malawi’s Local Courts Act

* Politics of Deconcentration for Local Government: The Case of Indonesia

* Risk Management In Elections

* Managing a Government Think Tank: Inside the Black Box

* The 5Rs Framework in the Program Cycle

* All About Behaviour: KAPE®, Adaptation and ‘Sticky’ Institutional Change

* Counting the Invisible:Using Data to Transform the Lives of Girls and Women by 2030

* Analytic Narratives, Case Studies, and Development

* Applied Political Economy Analysis Field Guide

* A Guide to Data Innovation for Development - From Idea to Proof-of-Concept

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